What is lingua franca pdf

A typical ELF conversation might involve an Italian and a Swede chatting at a coffee break of an international conference held in Brussels, a Spanish tourist asking a local for the way in Berlin, or a Punjabi Indian negotiating with a Tamil Indian salesperson in Chennai. With the world turned into an interconnected global system, there is a need for a mutual what is lingua franca pdf. ELF is a unique lingua franca because of its global spread, its highly diverse nature, and its interactions which include native speakers.

Language and globalisation affect each other. The reshaping of communities due to globalisation means considerable changes in the English language. As English encounters new communities and cultures, it is shaped and adapted by these encounters to be used by local communities for local and international communication. Consequently, hybrid forms develop in which new words are created, while simultaneously, existing words may be assigned new meanings. This leads to a constant process of linguistic change. Because of the use of English as a lingua franca, there is an unprecedented linguistic situation in which native speakers are outnumbered by non-native speakers of English.

The way English is used as a lingua franca is heavily dependent on the specific situation of use. Generally speaking, ELF interactions concentrate on function rather than form. As a consequence, ELF interactions are very often hybrid. Speakers accommodate to each other’s cultural backgrounds and may also use code-switching into other languages that they know. Rather, these forms do not seem to compromise effective communication within an ELF setting when they do occur. Recent linguistic discussions by ELF experts treat the interactants’ cultural and linguistic background as a factor influencing language performance. In this view, ELF is multicultural rather than culture-free.

ELF is used most often between non-native speakers of English but this fact does not mean that native speakers are excluded from ELF communication. However, very often they form a minority of the interlocutors. English appropriately in these situations. An important issue when discussing ELF is the notion of speakers of ELF being active language users in their own right, who do not need to adhere to native speaker norms but use ELF to meet their communicative needs.

English and describe ELF speakers as users of English, not as learners. Several attitude studies on the topic of ELF have already been conducted. One overarching factor seems to be a discrepancy between perceptions on the role of ELF in everyday interactions all over the globe on the one hand, and the dominance of as well as reliance on native speaker norms on the other hand. English since they wish to identify with the culture and values of English native speakers.