The principles of learning and behavior domjan pdf

This article has multiple issues. As a result, the formerly neutral stimulus elicits fear. Although the Watson and Rayner work with Little Albert clearly falls under the broad umbrella of “the principles of learning and behavior domjan pdf fear” they did not use the term CER and thought they were applying more general conditioning principles to human behavior.

CER” and demonstrated the phenomenon with rats. Interestingly, the largest change in behavior occurred during the time the tone was presented. That is, lever-pressing during the tone reduced to near zero levels. Given that the tone-shock pairings were likely sufficient to produce classical conditioning, Estes and Skinner hypothesized that the tone elicited fear that interfered or interrupted ongoing operant behavior. Note that the suppression of lever-pressing was robust, even though the operant, lever-press – food contingency was not altered at all. This experiment is critical in experimental psychology for it demonstrated that the interaction of classical and operant conditioning contingency could be powerful in altering behavior. This work sparked a number of experiments on this interaction, resulting in important experimental and theoretical contributions on autoshaping, negative automaintenance, and potentiated feeding, to name a few.

More importantly, the CER procedure solved a serious experimental problem in classical conditioning. In Pavlov’s original demonstration of classical conditioning, he used a backward conditioning arrangement as the control condition. CS and US presentations were reversed. The US preceded the CS, rather than the other way around. In the backward conditioning control procedure popular with Pavlov, his dogs did not salivate to the presentation of the CS, in contrast to those that received forward conditioning. However, the dogs did learn something – the presentation of the metronome predicted the absence of the food. This phenomenon we now call “conditioned inhibition.

However, since Pavlov was studying conditioned excitation, by measuring drops of saliva, he could not experimentally measure the inhibition of salivation. There was a floor effect as the dogs could not salivate below 0 drops of saliva. Thus, the lack of salivation by Pavlov’s dogs led him to conclude that no conditioning resulted, however, he could not measure conditioning. 5 indicates no conditioning, while measures that deviate from 0. CER can, therefore, measure both conditioned excitation and conditioned inhibition. Similarly, humans become less likely to report feelings of fear after their amygdala has been damaged due to injury or stroke. Principles of Learning and Behavior by Michael P.