Solid state chemistry notes pdf

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The four fundamental states of matter. Some other states are believed to be possible but remain theoretical for now. Historically, the distinction is made based on qualitative differences in properties. Matter in the liquid state maintains a fixed volume, but has a variable shape that adapts to fit its container. Its particles are still close together but move freely.

Matter in the gaseous state has both variable volume and shape, adapting both to fit its container. Its particles are neither close together nor fixed in place. Matter in the plasma state has variable volume and shape, but as well as neutral atoms, it contains a significant number of ions and electrons, both of which can move around freely. As a result, a solid has a stable, definite shape, and a definite volume. Solids can only change their shape by force, as when broken or cut. Solids can be transformed into liquids by melting, and liquids can be transformed into solids by freezing. Structure of a classical monatomic liquid.

Atoms have many nearest neighbors in contact, yet no long-range order is present. This means that the shape of a liquid is not definite but is determined by its container. The spaces between gas molecules are very big. Gas molecules have very weak or no bonds at all. The molecules in “gas” can move freely and fast.