Skeletal muscle relaxants pdf

This article is about skeletal muscle relaxants. This was first documented in the 16th century, when European skeletal muscle relaxants pdf encountered it.

Acetylcholine then diffuses across the synaptic cleft. Following depolarization, the acetylcholine molecules are then removed from the end plate region and enzymatically hydrolysed by acetylcholinesterase. Spasmolytic agents generally work by either enhancing the level of inhibition, or reducing the level of excitation. Because they may act at the level of the cortex, brain stem or spinal cord, or all three areas, they have traditionally been referred to as “centrally acting” muscle relaxants. Most sources still use the term “centrally acting muscle relaxant”. Use of this terminology dates back to at least 1973. A muscle relaxant is chosen based on its adverse-effect profile, tolerability, and cost.

Dantrolene, although thought of primarily as a peripherally acting agent, is associated with CNS effects, whereas baclofen activity is strictly associated with the CNS. Muscle relaxants are thought to be useful in painful disorders based on the theory that pain induces spasm and spasm causes pain. However, considerable evidence contradicts this theory. In general, muscle relaxants are not approved by FDA for long-term use. By increasing this sleep stage, patients feel more refreshed in the morning. Improving sleep is also beneficial for patients who have fibromyalgia. Because of the enhancement of inhibition in the CNS, most spasmolytic agents have the side effects of sedation, drowsiness and may cause dependence with long-term use.

Several of these agents also have abuse potential, and their prescription is strictly controlled. While it can be used in patients with muscle spasm of almost any origin, it produces sedation in most individuals at the doses required to reduce muscle tone. Baclofen also inhibits neural function presynaptically, by reducing calcium ion influx, and thereby reducing the release of excitatory neurotransmitters in both the brain and spinal cord. Neurophysiologic studies show that it depresses excitatory feedback from muscles that would normally increase muscle tone, therefore minimizing spasticity. Furthermore, several clinical trials indicate that tizanidine has a similar efficacy to other spasmolytic agents, such as diazepam and baclofen, with a different spectrum of adverse effects.

Usually, people become less alert when they are under the effects of muscle relaxant drugs. These effects were also reported by patients who took it in combination with other drugs with abuse potential, and in fewer cases, there were reports of carisoprodol-associated abuse when used without other drugs with abuse potential. Other severe side effects include unusual or severe tiredness or weakness, as well as yellowing of the skin or the eyes. This effect can be controlled by administering a low dose at the beginning and increasing it gradually. Retrieved on September 19, 2007.

Last Updated: February 15, 2006. Last Updated: April 1, 2007. WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology. Dantrolene, a direct acting skeletal muscle relaxant”.

Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant”. Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society”. Van Tulder, Maurits W, ed. Muscle relaxants for non-specific low back pain”. When Are Muscle Relaxers Prescribed For Arthritis Patients?

Drugs Used in Treating Motor Disorders”. Treatment Of Central Nervous System Degerative Disorders”. GABAergic control of spinal locomotor networks in the neonatal rat”. Symposium: Role of tizanidine in the treatment of spasticity”. Comparison of Effects of Various Types of NA and 5-HT Agonists on Transmission from Group II Muscle Afferents in the Cat”.

This page was last edited on 30 August 2017, at 11:38. This is only a preview of the document. Cover of ‘8-Skeletal muscle relaxants. Relieve of tetanus and epileptic convulsion.