Perception and misperception in international politics pdf download

A person who experiences internal inconsistency tends to become psychologically uncomfortable and is motivated to reduce the cognitive dissonance. This is done by changing parts of the cognition to justify the stressful behavior, by adding new parts to the cognition that causes the psychological dissonance, or by actively avoiding social situations and contradictory information that are likely to increase the magnitude of the cognitive dissonance. The importance of cognitions’: The greater the personal value of the elements, the greater the magnitude of the dissonance in the relation. Ratio perception and misperception in international politics pdf download cognitions’: The proportion of dissonant-to-consonant elements.

The creation and establishment of psychological consistency allows the person afflicted with cognitive dissonance to lessen his or her mental stress by actions that reduce the magnitude of the dissonance, realised either by changing with, or by justifying against, or by being indifferent to the existential contradiction that is inducing the mental stress. I’ll eat no more of this doughnut. I’m allowed to cheat my diet every once in a while. I’ll spend thirty extra minutes at the gymnasium to work off the doughnut. This doughnut is not a high-sugar food. Smoking and no attempt to quit since the previous round of study.

Quit during the study and did not use tobacco from the time of the previous round of study. Quit during the study, but relapsed to smoking at the time of the study. Smoking calms me down when I am stressed or upset. Smoking helps me concentrate better.

Smoking is an important part of my life. Smoking makes it easier for me to socialize. The medical evidence that smoking is harmful is exaggerated. One has to die of something, so why not enjoy yourself and smoke? Smoking is no more risky than many other things people do. Common to each paradigm of cognitive-dissonance theory is the tenet: People invested in a given perspective shall—when confronted with disconfirming evidence—expend great effort to justify retaining the challenged perspective. Earth, to rescue them from earthly corruption.