Peer pressure and substance abuse pdf

Child sex offender” redirects here. The global prevalence of child sexual peer pressure and substance abuse pdf has been estimated at 19.

An adult who engages in sexual activity with a child is performing a criminal and immoral act which never can be considered normal or socially acceptable behavior. Among more than 1,400 adult females, childhood sexual abuse was associated with increased likelihood of drug dependence, alcohol dependence, and psychiatric disorders. The associations are expressed as odds ratios: for example, women who experienced nongenital sexual abuse in childhood were 2. 83 times more likely to suffer drug dependence as adults than were women who were not abused. A well-documented, long-term negative effect is repeated or additional victimization in adolescence and adulthood. Males who were sexually abused as children more frequently appear in the criminal justice system than in a clinical mental health setting. A study comparing middle-aged women who were abused as children with non-abused counterparts found significantly higher health care costs for the former.

Intergenerational effects have been noted, with the children of victims of child sexual abuse exhibiting more conduct problems, peer problems, and emotional problems than their peers. The risk of harm is greater if the abuser is a relative, if the abuse involves intercourse or attempted intercourse, or if threats or force are used. The level of harm may also be affected by various factors such as penetration, duration and frequency of abuse, and use of force. In a 1998 review of related literature, Martin and Fleming state “The hypothesis advanced in this paper is that, in most cases, the fundamental damage inflicted by child sexual abuse is due to the child’s developing capacities for trust, intimacy, agency and sexuality, and that many of the mental health problems of adult life associated with histories of child sexual abuse are second-order effects.

Other studies have found an independent association of child sexual abuse with adverse psychological outcomes. CSA-exposed subjects had a consistently higher risk for psychopathologic disorders than their CSA non-exposed twins. The study was criticized for flawed methodology and conclusions. The US Congress condemned the study for its conclusions and for providing material used by pedophile organizations to justify their activities. In severe cases, damage to internal organs may occur, which, in some cases, may cause death.