Pathophysiology of disease lange pdf free download

Varicocele on the persons left, images right. Right-sided and bilateral varicoceles do also occur. The cause is unknown, but is thought to result from abnormalities of the veins inside the testicles, leading to pathophysiology of disease lange pdf free download backup of blood that cannot flow, which in turn causes swelling.

Often the greatest concern with respect to varicocele is its effect on male fertility. In addition, injury to the artery that supplies the testicle may occur, resulting in a loss of a testicle. Whether having variocele surgery or embolization improves male fertility is controversial, as good clinical data are lacking. 7 for varicoceletomy and 17 for embolization. There are also studies showing that the regular surgery has no significant effect on infertility.

Varicocele and male factor infertility treatment: a new meta-analysis and review of the role of varicocele repair”. New Delhi 110 002, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. Effect of surgical repair on testosterone production in infertile men with varicocele: A meta-analysis”. Surgery or embolization for varicoceles in subfertile men”. This page was last edited on 6 January 2018, at 22:58. At one end of an elongated structure is a branching mass.

At the centre of this mass is the nucleus and the branches are dendrites. A thick axon trails away from the mass, ending with further branching which are labeled as axon terminals. Along the axon are a number of protuberances labeled as myelin sheaths. The underlying condition that produces this behaviour is currently unknown.

Referring to MS, the physiology refers to the different processes that lead to the development of the lesions and the pathology refers to the condition associated with the lesions. The gold standard for MS diagnosis is pathological correlation, though given its limited availability, other diagnosis methods are normally used. MS is active even during remission periods. The scars that give the name to the condition are produced by the astrocyte cells healing old lesions. In multiple sclerosis there is an inflammatory, a demyelinating and a neurodegenerative condition together.

Currently it is unknown what the primary cause of MS is and, if MS turns out to be a heterogeneus disease, the lesion development process would not be unique. MS lesions develop inside NAWM areas. The most accepted sequence of events is first NAWM appearance, then the so-called pre-active lesions, with activated microglia, and finally the BBB breakdown, which produces the entrance of T-cells. Current models can be divided into two groups: Inside-out and Outside-in. In the first ones, it is hypothesized that a problem in the CNS cells produces an immune response that destroys myelin and finally breaks the BBB.

In the second models, an external factor produces BBB leaks, enters the CNS, and destroys myelin and axons. Whatever the underlying condition for MS is, some damage is triggered by a CSF unknown soluble factor, which is produced in meningeal areas and diffuses into the cortical parenchyma. It destroys myelin either directly or indirectly through microglia activation. MS, being exclusively present in MS patients, though currently it can only be detected at autopsy.