Maturity indices of fruits and vegetables pdf

Further documentation is available here. This report maturity indices of fruits and vegetables pdf the collective views of an international group of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organization, or the World Health Organization. First draft prepared by Prof. Published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organization, and the World Health Organization, and produced within the framework of the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals.

The overall objectives of the IPCS are to establish the scientific basis for assessment of the risk to human health and the environment from exposure to chemicals, through international peer review processes, as a prerequisite for the promotion of chemical safety, and to provide technical assistance in strengthening national capacities for the sound management of chemicals. 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development to strengthen cooperation and increase coordination in the field of chemical safety. The purpose of the IOMC is to promote coordination of the policies and activities pursued by the Participating Organizations, jointly or separately, to achieve the sound management of chemicals in relation to human health and the environment. Hydrogen cyanide and cyanides : human health aspects. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.

The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. The World Health Organization does not warrant that the information contained in this publication is complete and correct and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use. Rural Affairs, UK, Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug Administration, and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, USA, European Commission, German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Health Canada, Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and the Swiss Agency for Environment, Forests and Landscape. CICAD, to provide the reader with concise information on the protection of human health and on emergency action. They are produced in a separate peer-reviewed procedure at IPCS. They are usually based on selected national or regional evaluation documents or on existing EHCs.

Before acceptance for publication as CICADs by IPCS, these documents undergo extensive peer review by internationally selected experts to ensure their completeness, accuracy in the way in which the original data are represented, and the validity of the conclusions drawn. The critical studies are, however, presented in sufficient detail to support the conclusions drawn. For additional information, the reader should consult the identified source documents upon which the CICAD has been based. Risks to human health and the environment will vary considerably depending upon the type and extent of exposure. Responsible authorities are strongly encouraged to characterize risk on the basis of locally measured or predicted exposure scenarios. To assist the reader, examples of exposure estimation and risk characterization are provided in CICADs, whenever possible.

These examples cannot be considered as representing all possible exposure situations, but are provided as guidance only. The reader is referred to EHC 170. While every effort is made to ensure that CICADs represent the current status of knowledge, new information is being developed constantly. Unless otherwise stated, CICADs are based on a search of the scientific literature to the date shown in the executive summary.

In the event that a reader becomes aware of new information that would change the conclusions drawn in a CICAD, the reader is requested to contact IPCS to inform it of the new information. The flow chart on page 2 shows the procedures followed to produce a CICAD. Special emphasis is placed on avoiding duplication of effort by WHO and other international organizations. The source document and the CICAD may be produced in parallel. The first draft is usually based on an existing national, regional, or international review. Authors of the first draft are usually, but not necessarily, from the institution that developed the original review.

A standard outline has been developed to encourage consistency in form. The first draft undergoes primary review by IPCS to ensure that it meets the specified criteria for CICADs. The second stage involves international peer review by scientists known for their particular expertise and by scientists selected from an international roster compiled by IPCS through recommendations from IPCS national Contact Points and from IPCS Participating Institutions. Adequate time is allowed for the selected experts to undertake a thorough review. Authors are required to take reviewers’ comments into account and revise their draft, if necessary.

The resulting second draft is submitted to a Final Review Board together with the reviewers’ comments. At any stage in the international review process, a consultative group may be necessary to address specific areas of the science. Board members serve in their personal capacity, not as representatives of any organization, government, or industry. They are selected because of their expertise in human and environmental toxicology or because of their experience in the regulation of chemicals. Boards are chosen according to the range of expertise required for a meeting and the need for balanced geographic representation. Board members, authors, reviewers, consultants, and advisers who participate in the preparation of a CICAD are required to declare any real or potential conflict of interest in relation to the subjects under discussion at any stage of the process. Representatives of nongovernmental organizations may be invited to observe the proceedings of the Final Review Board.

The source documents and a description of their review processes are presented in Appendix 1. A comprehensive literature search of several online databases was performed in October 2002 to identify any relevant references published subsequent to those cited in the source documents. Participants at the 10th and 11th Final Review Board meetings are listed in Appendices 2 and 3. Cyanides comprise a wide range of compounds of varying degrees of chemical complexity, all of which contain a CN moiety, to which humans are exposed in gas, liquid, and solid form from a broad range of natural and anthropogenic sources. Hydrogen cyanide is a colourless or pale blue liquid or gas with a faint bitter almond-like odour.