Kashmir problem and its solution pdf

Kashmir problem and its solution pdf forward this error screen to 158. Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. The dark-brown region represents Indian-controlled Jammu and Kashmir while the Aksai Chin is under Chinese control.

Air Force Ensign of India. There are some groups that support the complete independence of Kashmir, while others seek Kashmir’s accession to Pakistan. The conflict in Jammu and Kashmir has strong Islamist elements among the insurgents, with many of the “ultras” identifying with Jihadist movements and supported by such. The roots of the conflict between the Kashmiri insurgents and the Indian government are tied to a dispute over local autonomy. Democratic development was limited in Kashmir until the late 1970s and by 1988 many of the democratic reforms provided by the Indian government had been reversed and non-violent channels for expressing discontent were limited and caused a dramatic increase in support for insurgents advocating violent secession from India.

1990s escalated into the most important internal security issue in India. Pakistan had supported and trained insurgent groups in the 1990s. 7,000 police personnel as of July 2009. Some rights groups claim a higher figure of 100,000 deaths since 1989. At the end of the war India controlled the most valuable parts of Kashmir.

While there were sporadic periods of violence there was no organised insurgency movement. He was an instrumental member in the accession of the state to India. The trend in total yearly civilian and security forces fatalities from insurgency-related violence over 25 years from 1988 to 2013. The elections were allegedly rigged in favour of Abdullah. This led to the rise of an armed insurgency movement composed, in part, of those who unfairly lost elections. Pakistan supplied these groups with logistical support, arms, recruits and training.

Over six months more than a hundred officials were killed to paralyse government’s administrative and intelligence apparatus. The daughter of then interior affairs minister, Mufti Mohammad Sayeed was kidnapped in December and four terrorists had to be released for her release. This event led to mass celebrations all over the valley. Farooq Abdullah resigned in January after the appointment of Jagmohan Malhotra as the Governor of Jammu and Kashmir. K was placed under governor rule under Article 356, Disturbed Areas Act of Indian constitution.

Under JKLF’s leadership on January 21-23 large scale protests were organised in valley. As a response to this largely explosive situation paramilitary units of BSF and CRPF were called. These units were used by the government to combat Maoist insurgency and the North-Eastern insurgency. The challenge to them in this situation was not posed by armed insurgents but by the stone pelters. Their inexperience caused atleast 50 casualties in Gawkadal massacre. In this incident the underground militant movement was transformed into a mass struggle.

Kashmir in September 1990 to supress the insurgency by giving armed forces the powers to kill and arrest without warrant to maintain public order. During this time the dominant tactic involved killing of a prominent figure in a public gathering to push forces into action and the public prevented them from capturing these insurgents. This sprouting of sympathisers in Kashmir led to the hard-line approach of Indian army. With JKLF at forefront large number of militant groups like Allah Tigers, People’s League and Hizb-i-Islamia sprung up.