Introduction to food science rick parker pdf

Please forward this error screen to 68. This introduction to food science rick parker pdf a featured article. Click here for more information. Since the 1960s, efforts have been made to increase consumption of the animal outside South America.

European traders in the 16th century. Biological experimentation on guinea pigs has been carried out since the 17th century. 500 BC to 500 AD that depict guinea pigs have been unearthed in archaeological digs in Peru and Ecuador. Peru worshipped animals and often depicted the guinea pig in their art.

1532, selective breeding resulted in many varieties of domestic guinea pigs, which form the basis for some of the modern domestic breeds. Andean highlands raise the animal, which subsists on the family’s vegetable scraps. They are rubbed against the bodies of the sick, and are seen as a supernatural medium. Black guinea pigs are considered especially useful for diagnoses. The animal also may be cut open and its entrails examined to determine whether the cure was effective.

These methods are widely accepted in many parts of the Andes, where Western medicine is either unavailable or distrusted. How the animals came to be called “pigs” is not clear. They can survive for long periods in small quarters, like a ‘pig pen’, and were thus easily transported on ships to Europe. The animal’s name alludes to pigs in many European languages.

Many other, possibly less scientifically based explanations of the German name exist. Dutch traders who first brought them to Nagasaki in 1843. The origin of “guinea” in “guinea pig” is harder to explain. Guinea” was also frequently used in English to refer generally to any far-off, unknown country, so the name may simply be a colorful reference to the animal’s exotic appeal. Ginny-pig” as early as 1653. They typically live an average of four to five years, but may live as long as eight years.

Groups of boars may also get along, provided their cage has enough space, they are introduced at an early age, and no females are present. Domestic guinea pigs have developed a different biological rhythm from their wild counterparts, and have longer periods of activity followed by short periods of sleep in between. The success of this type of interspecies interaction varies according to the individual animals involved. Domestic guinea pigs generally live in cages, although some owners of large numbers of guinea pigs dedicate entire rooms to their pets. Cages are often lined with wood shavings or a similar material. After its cage has been cleaned, a guinea pig typically urinates and drags its lower body across the floor of the cage to mark its territory.

Male guinea pigs may also mark their territory in this way when they are taken out of their cages. Guinea pigs do not generally thrive when housed with other species. Some published sources say that guinea pigs and rabbits complement each other well when sharing a cage. Guinea pigs can learn complex paths to food, and can accurately remember a learned path for months. Their strongest problem-solving strategy is motion. While guinea pigs can jump small obstacles, most of them are poor climbers, and are not particularly agile.

They startle extremely easily, and either freeze in place for long periods or run for cover with rapid, darting motions when they sense danger. Larger groups of startled guinea pigs “stampede”, running in haphazard directions as a means of confusing predators. They are also very good swimmers. A milky-white substance is secreted from their eyes and rubbed into the hair during the grooming process. Groups of boars often chew each other’s hair, but this is a method of establishing hierarchy within a group, rather than a social gesture.

Vocalization is the primary means of communication between members of the species. An expression of general excitement, it may occur in response to the presence of its owner or to feeding. It is sometimes used to find other guinea pigs if they are running. If a guinea pig is lost, it may wheek for assistance. A bubbling or purring sound is made when the guinea pig is enjoying itself, such as when being petted or held. It may also make this sound when grooming, crawling around to investigate a new place, or when given food.