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Parks was not the first person to resist bus segregation. Montgomery for not gayle forman just one day pdf up their bus seats months before Parks. At the time, Parks was secretary of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP.

She acted as a private citizen “tired of giving in”. After retirement, Parks wrote her autobiography and continued to insist that the struggle for justice was not over and there was more work to be done. She grew up on a farm with her maternal grandparents, mother, and younger brother Sylvester. Montgomery, she took academic and vocational courses. Alabama, many poor white voters as well.

Bus and train companies enforced seating policies with separate sections for blacks and whites. School bus transportation was unavailable in any form for black schoolchildren in the South, and black education was always underfunded. The bus was among the first ways I realized there was a black world and a white world. Parks recalls her grandfather guarding the front door with a shotgun. Its faculty was ostracized by the white community. Repeatedly bullied by white children in her neighborhood, Parks often fought back physically.

She later said that “As far back as I remember, I could never think in terms of accepting physical abuse without some form of retaliation if possible. In 1932, Rosa married Raymond Parks, a barber from Montgomery. Rosa took numerous jobs, ranging from domestic worker to hospital aide. African Americans had a high school diploma. Montgomery chapter of the NAACP, and was elected secretary at a time when this was considered a woman’s job. She later said, “I was the only woman there, and they needed a secretary, and I was too timid to say no. She continued as secretary until 1957.

Women don’t need to be nowhere but in the kitchen. When Parks asked “Well, what about me? I need a secretary and you are a good one. Parks and other civil rights activists organized the “Committee for Equal Justice for Mrs. She rode on its integrated trolley.

Speaking to her biographer, Parks noted, “You might just say Maxwell opened my eyes up. In 1945, despite the Jim Crow laws and discrimination by registrars, she succeeded in registering to vote on her third try. Howard brought news of the recent acquittal of the two men who had murdered Till. Parks was deeply saddened and angry at the news, particularly because Till’s case had garnered much more attention than any of the cases she and the Montgomery NAACP had worked on—and yet, the two men still walked free. In 1900, Montgomery had passed a city ordinance to segregate bus passengers by race.

Conductors were empowered to assign seats to achieve that goal. According to the law, no passenger would be required to move or give up their seat and stand if the bus was crowded and no other seats were available. Over time and by custom, however, Montgomery bus drivers adopted the practice of requiring black riders to move when there were no white-only seats left. The first four rows of seats on each Montgomery bus were reserved for whites.

The sections were not fixed but were determined by placement of a movable sign. Black people could not sit across the aisle in the same row as white people. The driver could move the “colored” section sign, or remove it altogether. If white people were already sitting in the front, black people had to board at the front to pay the fare, then disembark and reenter through the rear door. For years, the black community had complained that the situation was unfair.

Parks said, “My resisting being mistreated on the bus did not begin with that particular arrest. I did a lot of walking in Montgomery. One day in 1943, Parks boarded a bus and paid the fare. When Parks exited the vehicle, Blake drove off without her.