Concept of the corporation pdf

Please forward this error screen to 216. Where local law distinguishes corporations by the ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as “stock corporations”, ownership of the corporation is concept of the corporation pdf stock, and owners of stock are referred to as “stockholders” or “shareholders”. Corporations chartered in regions where they are distinguished by whether they are allowed to be for profit or not are referred to as “for profit” and “not-for-profit” corporations, respectively. A for-profit corporation is almost always a stock corporation, but some for-profit corporations may choose to be non-stock.

Shareholder” is used in the rest of this article to refer to a stock corporation, it is presumed to mean the same as “member” for a non-profit corporation or for a profit, non-stock corporation. In most circumstances, a shareholder may also serve as a director or officer of a corporation. For example, a corporation can own property, and can sue or be sued. Corporations can be “dissolved” either by statutory operation, order of court, or voluntary action on the part of shareholders. However, corporations are not considered living entities in the way that humans are. Late in the 19th century, a new form of company having the limited liability protections of a corporation, and the more favorable tax treatment of either a sole proprietorship or partnership was developed.

While not a corporation, this new type of entity became very attractive as an alternative for corporations not needing to issue stock. Such bodies commonly had the right to own property and make contracts, to receive gifts and legacies, to sue and be sued, and, in general, to perform legal acts through representatives. Private associations were granted designated privileges and liberties by the emperor. The point was that the incorporation would survive longer than the lives of any particular member, existing in perpetuity. Whenever people acted together with a view to profit, the law deemed that a partnership arose. European nations in the 17th century. Some corporations at this time would act on the government’s behalf, bringing in revenue from its exploits abroad.

Labeled by both contemporaries and historians as “the grandest society of merchants in the universe”, the English East India Company would come to symbolize the dazzlingly rich potential of the corporation, as well as new methods of business that could be both brutal and exploitative. Subsequent stock offerings demonstrated just how lucrative the Company had become. 1711 to trade in the Spanish South American colonies, but met with less success. In fact the Spanish remained hostile and let only one ship a year enter.

The share price rose so rapidly that people began buying shares merely in order to sell them at a higher price, which in turn led to higher share prices. As bankruptcies and recriminations ricocheted through government and high society, the mood against corporations, and errant directors was bitter. The British Bubble Act 1720’s prohibition on establishing companies remained in force until its repeal in 1825. Without cohesive regulation, proverbial operations like the “Anglo-Bengalee Disinterested Loan and Life Assurance Company” were undercapitalised ventures promising no hope of success except for richly paid promoters. Parliament’s jealous protection of the privileges and advantages thereby granted. Though Parliament would sometimes grant a private act to allow an individual to represent the whole in legal proceedings, this was a narrow and necessarily costly expedient, allowed only to established companies. For the first time in history, it was possible for ordinary people through a simple registration procedure to incorporate.

However, there was still no limited liability and company members could still be held responsible for unlimited losses by the company. Vice President of the Board of Trade, Mr. 1855 that “never, perhaps, was a change so vehemently and generally demanded, of which the importance was so much overrated. The major error of this judgment was recognised by the same magazine more than 70 years later, when it claimed that, “he economic historian of the future. The legislation shortly gave way to a railway boom, and from then, the numbers of companies formed soared. In the later nineteenth century, depression took hold, and just as company numbers had boomed, many began to implode and fall into insolvency. Much strong academic, legislative and judicial opinion was opposed to the notion that businessmen could escape accountability for their role in the failing businesses.

This inspired other countries to introduce corporations of this kind. House of Lords confirmed the separate legal personality of the company, and that the liabilities of the company were separate and distinct from those of its owners. State governments began to adopt more permissive corporate laws from the early 19th century, although these were all restrictive in design, often with the intention of preventing corporations for gaining too much wealth and power. In 1899, Delaware followed New Jersey’s lead with the enactment of an enabling corporate statute, but Delaware only became the leading corporate state after the enabling provisions of the 1896 New Jersey corporate law were repealed in 1913. The 20th century saw a proliferation of laws allowing for the creation of corporations by registration across the world, which helped to drive economic booms in many countries before and after World War I.